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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Alpha Construction Co"

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S0LAR/1034-79/0JJ, 



Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



ALPHA CONSTRUCTION CO. 
FEBRUARY 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



.NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

ALPHA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

FEBRUARY 1979 



I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Alpha Construction Company site is a single-family residence in Canton, 
Ohio. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic 
hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 428 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 
37 degrees to the horizontal. Air is the transfer medium that delivers solar 
energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heating and hot 
water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 510-cubic-foot bin 
containing 50,100 pounds of rock. The bin has concrete block walls and 
polyurethane insulation. Preheated city water is stored in an 80-gallon 
preheat storage tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 52-gallon DHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
heat pump in the air-handling unit provides auxiliary energy for space heating. 
Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides auxiliary 
energy for water heating. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 
four modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the collector 
is operating, a space heating demand exists, and the plenum temperature at 
the top of storage is above the minimum value suitable for supplying heat to 
the house. Heated air is circulated through the house by the air-handling 
unit before being returned to the collector. 

Mode 2 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when the collector is 

operating and there is either no demand for space heating or the plenum 

temperature at the top of storage is below the minimum value for supplying 
heat to the house. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a 
demand for space heating, and the plenum temperature at the top of storage is 
above the minimum value for supplying heat to the house. The fan in the air- 
handling unit draws air from the bin, circulating it through the house and 
back to storage. 

Mode 4 - Domestic Water Preheating : This mode activates when the temperature 
at the top of the collector indicates a minimum value for hot water heating, 
which must be above the plenum temperature at the bottom of storage. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied during the month of February; however the solar 
energy system operated continuously during the month. Solar energy satisfied 



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1 percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system incurred 
an electrical energy expense of 0.25 million Btu. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month total incident solar energy on the collector array was 9.6 
million Btu for a daily average of 799 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
February of 947 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 37 
degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during February 
was 18°F as compared with the long-term average for February of 28°F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
1327, as compared with the long-term average of 1044. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During February the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer 
than expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified 
f-chart analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar 
energy collected was 2.5 million Btu versus an estimated 3.2 million Btu. 
Solar energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy 
collected would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 0.17 
million Btu. System total solar fraction was 1 percent versus an estimated 31 
percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of February was 9.6 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating, the total insolation amounted to 7.5 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of February was 2.5 million Btu, result- 
ing in a collector array efficiency of 26 percent, based on total incident 
insolation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 
2.4 million Btu, while solar energy delivered from the collector array 
directly to the loads amounted to 0.072 million Btu. Energy loss during 
transfer from the collector array to storage and loads was 0.024 million Btu. 
This loss represented 1 percent of the energy collected. Operating energy 
required by the collector loop was 0.17 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 2.4 million Btu. There were 
0.093 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. 
Energy loss from storage was 1.9 million Btu. This loss represented 81 
percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 19 
percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed 
from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to 
storage. The average storage temperature for the month was 71 °F. 

DHW Load - Because the home was unoccupied in February there was no require- 
ment for hot water. A total of 0.072 million Btu of solar energy was used to 
heat the water in the preheat tank. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 
0.11 million Btu of operating energy resulting in an energy expense of 0.11 
million Btu. An additional 0.31 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy 



was used by the hot water tank to maintain the temperature. The average 
temperature of the water in the DHW tank was 120°F. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating requirement for the unoccupied home 
during February was 9.3 million Btu. The solar energy system provided 0.093 
million Btu or 1 percent of this requirement. The remaining load of 9.2 
million Btu was satisfied by an auxiliary electrical heat pump and an elec- 
trical heating element at an electrical consumption of 5.3 million Btu. The 
space heating subsystem consumed an additional 1.7 million Btu of operating 
energy. A net electrical energy savings of 0.030 million Btu was obtained 
from the solar portion of the space heating subsystem. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The solar energy site was unoccupied during the month of February and pre- 
sented a minimum space heating load due to a thermostat set at 57°F. The 



On 



daily average insolation was slightly lower than is expected in February, 
while the average temperature was 10°F colder than the long-term average, i 
10 days the total daily insolation was greater than 1000 Btu per square foot. 
On only five days, however, was the temperature in storage sufficient to act 
as a source for space heating and then only minimally. Unmeasurable energy 
escaped into the conditioned space and outside environment causing storage to 
lose most of the energy collected during the month. The 1.9 million Btu 
lost from storage, if added to the measured space heating load of 9.3 million 
Btu, exceeds the estimated space heating load of 10.1 million Btu (based on 
UA value of the house). 

The DHW preheat subsystem expended more operating energy than the amount of 
solar energy transferred to the DHW preheat tank; this pattern has been 
consistent throughout the heating season. The lack of a hot water load due 
to the unoccupied home may partially account for this. 

The configuration of the DHW subsystem preheat loop permits energy transfer 
to the preheat tank only during times when collection is occurring. A separate 
air blower is required by this subsystem, adding significantly to the opera- 
ting energy costs. During periods of heating from storage, an induced air 
flow occurs through the DHW preheat loop. Some of the unmeasurable energy 
loss from storage may be escaping through this air path. During the cooling 
season the storage subsystem must be operated to allow operation of the DHW 
preheat subsystem. Energy not utilized by the DHW subsystem is collected in 
storage. Energy losses from storage to the conditioned space add to the 
cooling load, reducing any savings obtained by the DHW subsystem. Based upon 
the apparent ineffectiveness during the heating season and the operating 
costs during the summer, it may be worth reconfiguring or deactivating the DHW 
subsystem at this site. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system incurred a total electrical energy expense of 0.25 
million Btu. The space heating subsystem provided a savings of 0.03 million 
Btu but this was eliminated due to the expense of operating the DHW subsystem 
(0.11 million Btu) and the collection subsystem (0.17 million Btu). 



4' 



III. A CTION STATUS 

Boeing conducted a preliminary air-mapping survey in October which revealed 
significant leaks in the energy collection and storage subsystems. Sealing 
the accessible leaks would only provide minimal improvement. 



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